An update on the loaded climate dice

One of the recurring claims you will find in discussions of climate change is that the climate in general not only becomes warmer but also more extreme. For instance, the latest report on climate change by the U.S. Administration is covered in the news as follows:

"While summers become more extreme, the harshness of winter is expected to ease." (Jason Samenow, Washington Post, November 27)

But does the data support this?

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The climate dice are loaded: A replication

It’s Not Your Imagination. Summers Are Getting Hotter(Source: Popovich & Pearce (2017): *[It’s Not Your Imagination. Summers Are Getting Hotter](*, New York Times)

On July 28, 2017, the New York Times published an article by Nadja Popovich and Adam Pearce with the intriguing title "It’s Not Your Imagination. Summers Are Getting Hotter". As the title suggests, the article makes the claim that summers are getting hotter and hotter. The main argument of the article is the visualization depicted above. It shows "how summer temperatures have shifted toward more extreme heat over the past several decades".

This is a very effective visualization because it communicates relatively complicated scientific information (a distribution of temperatures) in an approachable way. All you need to understand is that temperatures move to the right, which means summers get hotter. (The article also features an animated visualization, which shows how the temperature distribution has changed over the decades.). This post replicates the visualization and reflects on the underlying data preparation and data wrangling activities.

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